This article is about the county formed in 1807. For the county formed in 1784 which is now part of Kentucky, see Nelson County, Kentucky.

Nelson County was created in 1807, when it was separated from Amherst County. The government was formed the following year.[4] The county is named for Thomas Nelson, Jr., a signer of the U.S. Declaration of Independence, who served as Governor of Virginia in 1781. An earlier Virginia county, also named in his honor, became part of Kentucky when it separated from Virginia in 1792.


Nelson County is bordered on the north by Augusta County, the northeast by Albemarle County, the southeast by Buckingham County, the southwest by Amherst County, and on the west by Rockbridge County.